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Professor Bill Thompson


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Bill Thompson

Bill is a professor of psychology in the Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, and Chief Investigator of the ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders. He is the Director of the Music, Sound and Performance Lab, and Founding Director of the Centre for Elite Performance, Expertise and Training. He is author of the book "Music, Thought and Feeling: Understanding the Psychology of Music" (2009 and 2014 (2nd edition), Oxford University Press,ISBN: 9781452283036, 400 pages).

Research interests

Music perception and cognition; music and emotion; violence and music;music and language; disorders of music; music-based treatments



Thompson, W.F. (2009). Music, thought, and feeling: Understanding the psychology of music. New York:Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537707-1

Thompson, W.F. (2014). Music, thought, and feeling: Understanding the psychology of music: 2nd edition. New York:Oxford University Press. In press.

Thompson, W.F. (2014). Encyclopedia of Music in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Sage  Publications (1360 pages): ISBN: 9781452283036

Articles and Chapters

Russo, F.A., Thompson, W.F., & Cuddy, L.L. (in press). Effects of Emergent-Level Structure on

Melodic Processing Difficulty. Music Perception. Accepted with minor changes for a special issue March 6th, 2015.

View all publications

Jiang, C., Liu, F & Thompson, W.F. (in press). Explicit Processing of Musical Syntax in a Group Mandarin-Speaking Congenital Amusics. Music Perception, accepted January 10, 2015.

Lu, X., Ho, H.T., Liu, F., Wu, D., & Thompson, W.F. (2015). Intonation Processing Deficits of  emotional Words among Mandarin Chinese Speakers with Congenital Amusia: An ERP Study. Frontiers in Psychology: Auditory Cognitive Neuroscience. 6:385. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00385

Thompson, W.F., & Schlaug, G. (2015). The healing power of music. Scientific American: Mind, 26(2), 33-41.

Gelding, R., Thompson, W.F. & Johnson, B.W. (2015). The Pitch Imagery Arrow Task: Effects of musical training, vividness, and mental control. PLoS ONE. 10(3): e0121809. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121809

Livingstone, S.R., Thompson, W.F., Wanderley, M.M., & Palmer, C. (2014). Common cues to emotion in the dynamic facial expressions of speech and song. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 17470218.2014.971034.

Braun Janzen, T., Thompson, W.F., & Ranvaud, R. (2014). A developmental study of the effect of music training on timed movements. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00801.

Braun-Janzen, T., Thompson, W.F., Ammirante, P., & Ranvaud, R. (2014). Timing skills and expertise: discrete and continuous timed movements among musicians and athletes. Frontiers in Psychology: Cognition. ISSN: 1664-1078.

Quinto, L.R., Thompson, W.F., Kroos, C., & Palmer, C. (2014). Singing emotionally: A study of pre-production, production, and post-production facial expressions. Frontiers in Psychology. Accepted March, 2014.

Colling, L., Thompson, W.F., and Sutton, J. (2014). The effect of movement kinematics on predicting the timing of observed actions. Experimental Brain Research. 2014 Jan 23. Epub ahead of print.

Thompson, W.F., & Liu, F. (2014). Music disorders. In Thompson, W.F. (Ed.). Music in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Encyclopedia. Sage Publications Inc., New York. ISBN: 9781452283036

Thompson, W.F., & Cuddy, L.L. (2014). Closure. In Thompson, W.F. (Ed.). Music in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Encyclopedia. Sage Publications Inc., New York. ISBN: 9781452283036

Graur, A.J., Russo, F.A., & Thompson, W.F. (2014). Theory of Mind. In Thompson, W.F. (Ed.). Music in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Encyclopedia. Sage Publications Inc., New York. ISBN: 9781452283036

Shahd Al-Janabi, Lyndsey A. Nickels, Paul F. Sowman, Hana Burianová, Dawn L. Merrett & William F. Thompson (2014). Augmenting melodic intonation therapy with non-invasive brain stimulation to treat impaired left-hemisphere function: two case studies. Frontiers in Psychology. January 2014, Volume 5, Article 37 (1), in press.

Quinto, L., & Thompson, W.F. (2013). Composers and Performers Have Different Capacities to Manipulate Arousal and Valence. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind and Brain, 23(3), 137-150.

Quinto, L., Thompson, W.F., & Taylor, A. (2013). The contributions of compositional structure and performance expression to the communication of emotion in music. Psychology of Music, Published online before print August 15, 2013, doi: 10.1177/0305735613482023

Quinto, L.R., Thompson, W.F., & Keating, F.L. (2013). Emotional Communication in Speech and Music: The Role of Melodic and Rhythmic Contrasts. Frontiers in Psychology: Emotion Science, 4:184. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00184

Colling, L. & Thompson, W.F. (2013). Music, Action and Affect. In Tom Cochran, Bernardino Fantini, & Klaus R. Scherer, University of Geneva (Eds.). The Emotional Power of Music. London: Oxford University Press.

Thompson, W.F. (2013). Intervals and Scales. In Diana Deutsch (Ed.). The Psychology of Music(3rd edition). New York: Academic Press.

Thompson, W.F. & Antliff, A. (2013). Bridging two worlds that care about art: Psychological and historical approaches to art appreciation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 159-160.

Thompson, W. F., Marin, M. M., & Stewart, L. (2012). Reduced sensitivity to emotional prosody in congenital amusia rekindles the musical protolanguage hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 109(49), 19027-19032. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1210344109

Peter, V., McArthur, G., & Thompson, W. F. (2012). Discrimination of stress in speech and music: A mismatch negativity (MMN) study. Psychophysiology, 49(12), 1590-1600. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2012.01472.x

Thompson, W.F., & Green, R. (2012). Priming. In M. Danesi (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Media and Communications. pp. 531-536, University of Toronto Press: Toronto, Canada, ISBN 978-1-4426-1169-6.

Quinto, L., & Thompson, W.F. (2012). Composing by Listening: A Computer-Assisted System for Creating Emotional Music. Journal of Synthetic Emotions, 3(2), 48-67.

Thompson, W.F., & Ammirante, P. (2012). Musical thought. In Keith Holyoak & Robert Morrison (Eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Chapter 39 (pp. 684-698). New York: Oxford University Press.

Thompson, W.F., Peter, V., Olsen, K.N., & Stevens, C.J. (2012). The effect of intensity on relative pitch. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 65(10), 2054-2072, DOI: 10.1080/17470218.2012.678369

Vuoskoski, J., Thompson, W.F., McIlwain, D., & Eerola, T. (2012). Who enjoys listening to sad music and why? Music Perception, 29, 311-318.

Ammirante, P., & Thompson, W.F. (2012). Continuation tapping to triggered melodies: Motor resonance effects of melodic motion. Experimental Brain Research. 216(1), 51-60.

Liu, F., Jiang, C., Thompson, W.F., Xu, Y., Yang, Y., & Stewart, L. (2012). The mechanisms of speech processing in congenital amusia: Evidence from Mandarin Speakers. PLoS ONE. 7(2): doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030374.

Fassbender E.A., Richards D.B., Bilgin, A.C., Thompson, W.F., & Heiden, W. (2012). VirSchool: The Effect Of Background Music And Immersive Display Systems On Memory For Facts Learned In An Educational Virtual Environment. Computers & Education. 58(1), 490-500.

Ilie, G., & Thompson, W.F. (2011). Experiential and cognitive changes following seven minutes exposure to music and speech. Music Perception, 28, 247-264.

Eisenberg, J. & Thompson, W.F. (2011). The effects of competition on improvisers' motivation, stress, and creative performance. Creativity Research Journal, 23 (2), 129-136.

Thompson, W.F. & Quinto, L. (2011). Music and Emotion: Psychological Considerations. In Peter Goldie and Elizabeth Schellekens (Eds.), Philosophy and Aesthetic Psychology, Chapter 21 (pp. 357-375). Oxford University Press.

Thompson, W.F.,Schellenberg, E.G., & Letnic, A.K. (2011). Fast and loud music disrupts reading comprehension. Psychology of Music, Published online before print May 20, 2011, doi: 10.1177/0305735611400173

Mak-Fan, K.M, Thompson, W.F., & Green, R.E.A. (2011). Visual search for schematic emotional faces risks perceptual confound. Cognition & Emotion, 25(4), 573-584.

Peter, V., McArthur, G., & Thompson, W.F. (2010). Effect of deviance direction and calculation method on duration and frequency mismatch negativity (MMN). Neuroscience Letters,482(1), 71-75. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2010.07.010.

Quinto, L., Thompson, W.F., Russo, F.A., & Trehub, S.E. (2010). A Comparison of the McGurk Effect for Spoken and Sung Syllables. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics.

Thompson, W.F., Russo, R.A. & Livingstone, S. (2010). Facial expressions of pitch structure in music performance. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 317-322.

Livingstone, S. R., Muhlberger, R., Brown, A. R., & Thompson, W.F. (2010). Changing musical emotion: A computational rule system for modifying score and performance. Computer Music Journal. 34, 41-64. 

Thompson, W.F. & Balkwill, L-L. (2010). Cross-cultural similarities and differences. In Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda (Eds.), Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications. Oxford University Press. Chapter 27, pp. 755-788.

Livingstone, S. & Thompson, W.F. (2009). L'apparition de la musique de la théorie d'esprit. In Irene Deliege, Oliver Vitouch & Olivia Ladinig (Eds.), Musique et Evolution (pp. 47-63). Belgium: Pierre MARDAGA Press.

Prince, J.B., Thompson, W.F., & Schmuckler, M.A. (2009). Exploring dimensional interactions between pitch and time in music:  Are tonality and meter integral or separable?Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 35(5), 1598-617. ISSN: 0096-1523

Livingstone, S.R., Thompson, W.F., & Russo, F.A. (2009). Facial expressions and emotional singing: A study of perception and production with motion capture and electromyography. Music Perception, 26, 475-488. ISSN: 0730-7829

Prince, J.B., Schmuckler, M.A., & Thompson, W.F. (2009). The effect of task and pitch structure on pitch-time interactions in music. Memory & Cognition, 37(3), 368-381. ISSN: 1532-5946

Livingstone, S. & Thompson, W.F. (2009).  The emergence of music from the Theory of Mind. Musica Scientiae, Special issue 2009/10 "Music and Evolution", 83-115.

Prince, J.B., Schmuckler, M.A., & Thompson, W.F. (2009). Cross-modal perception of melodic contour. Canadian Acoustics, 37. 35-49. ISSN: 0711-6659

Ceaser, D.K., Thompson, W.F., & Russo, F.A. (2009). Expressing tonal closure in music performance: Auditory and visual cues. Canadian Acoustics, 37, 29-33. ISSN: 0711-6659

Richards, D., Fassbender, E., Bilgin, A., & Thompson, W. F.(2008). An investigation of the role of background music in IVWs for learning. ALT-J, 16 (3), 231 - 244.

Thompson, W.F. & Coltheart, M. (2008). The role of signal detection and amplification in the induction of emotion by music. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31(5), 597-598.

Thompson, W.F. & Russo, F.A. & Quinto, L. (2008). Audio-visual integration of emotional cues in song. Cognition & Emotion. 22(8), 1457-1470.

Thompson, W.F. & Russo, F.A. (2007). Facing the music.  Psychological Science, 18, 756-757.

Russo, F.A., Cuddy, L.L., Galembo, A., & Thompson, W.F. (2007). Sensitivity to tonality across the pitch range. Perception, 36(5), 781-790. 

Thompson, W.F. & Schellenberg, G. (2006). Listening to Music. In R. Colwell. MENC handbook of Music Cognition & Development. Oxford University Press, pp. 72-123.

Thompson, W.F., Dalla Bella, S. & Keller, P. (2006). Music Performance. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 2(2-3), 99-102.

Livingstone, S.R. & Thompson, W.F. (2006). Multi-modal affective interaction: A comment on musical origins. Music Perception, 24(1), 89-94.

Thompson, W.F. & Balkwill, L-L. (2006). Decoding speech prosody in five languages. Semiotica,158–1/4, 407–424.

Ilie, G. & Thompson, W.F. (2006). A comparison of acoustic cues in music and speech for three dimensions of affect.Music Perception, 23, 319-329.

Russo, F. & Thompson, W.F. (2005). The subjective size of melodic intervals over a two-octave range. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 12, 1068-1075.

Russo, F. & Thompson, W.F. (2005). An interval size illusion: Extra pitch influences on the perceived size of melodic intervals. Perception & Psychophysics, 67(4), 559-568.

Thompson, W.F., Graham, P., & Russo, F.A. (2005). Seeing music performance: Visual influences on perception and experience. Semiotica, 156 (1/4), 203-227.

Thompson, W.F. & Russo, F. (2004). The attribution of meaning and emotion to song lyrics. Polskie Forum Psychologiczne, 9, 51-62.

Balkwill, L-L & Thompson, W.F. & Matsunaga, R. (2004). Recognition of emotion in Japanese, Western, and Hindustani music by Japanese listeners. Japanese Psychological Research, 46(4), 337-349.

Thompson, W.F., Schellenberg, E.G., & Husain, G. (2004). Decoding speech prosody: Do music lessons help? Emotion, 4, 46-64.

Green, R., Turner, G., & Thompson, W.F. (2004). Deficits in facial emotion perception in adults with recent traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychologia, 42, 133-141

Thompson, W.F., Schellenberg, E.G., & Husain, G. (2003). Perceiving prosody in speech: Effects of music lessons. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 530-532.

Jamieson, R.K., Thompson, W.F.,Cuddy, L.L., & Mewhort, D.J.K. (2003). Do conjunction errors in auditory recognition imply feature migration? Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57(2), 125-130.

Turner, G.R., Green, R., Thompson, W.F. (2003).  Deï¬Âcits in facial emotion perception in recently traumatically brain injured adults.  Brain & Cognition, 51(2), 175-177.

Thompson, W.F. (2003). Is music unique among human activities? Bulletin of Psychology and the Arts, 4(1), 38-39.

Eisenberg, J. & Thompson, W.F. (2003). A Matter of Taste: Evaluating Improvised Music. Creativity Research Journal, 15(3), 287-296.

Thompson, W.F. & Schellenberg, G. (2002). In Colwell, R. (Ed.) Cognitive constraints on music listening. In Richard Colwell (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning, 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, pp. 461-486.

Husain, G., Thompson, W.F.& Schellenberg, E.G. (2002). Effects of musical tempo and mode on arousal, mood, and spatial abilities: Re-examination of the "Mozart effect". Music Perception, 20(20), 151-171.

Thompson, W.F. (2002) Evoking Terror In Film Scores. M/C: A Journal of Media and Culture 5(1). (February, 2002).

Thompson, W.F., Schellenberg, E.G., & Husain, G. (2001). Arousal, mood, and the Mozart Effect. Psychological Science, 12(3), 248-251.

Ranvaud, R., Thompson, W.F.,Moriyama, L. & Balkwill, L.L. (2001). The speed of pitch resolution in musical context. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109(6), 3021-3031.

Thompson, W.F., Hall, M. & Pressing, J. (2001). Illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(1), 128-140.

Thompson, W.F., Balkwill, L.L. & Vernescu, R. (2000). Expectancies generated by recent exposure to melodic sequences. Memory & Cognition. 28(4), 547-555.

Balkwill, L.L. & Thompson, W.F. (1999). A cross-cultural investigation of the perception of emotion in music: Psychophysical and cultural cues. Music Perception, 17, 43-64.

Thompson, W.F., Diamond, C.T.P., & Balkwill, L-L. (1998). The adjudication of six performances of a Chopin Etude: A study of expert knowledge. Psychology of Music, 26, 154-174.

McPherson, G. & Thompson, W.F. (1998). Assessing music performance: Issues and influences. Research Studies in Music Education, 10, 12-24.

Thompson, W.F. & Stainton, M. (1998). Expectancy in Bohemian folksong melodies: Evaluation of implicative principles for implicative and closural intervals. Music Perception. 15(3), 231-252.

Thompson, W.F., Cuddy, L.L. & Plaus, C. (1997). Expectancies generated by melodic intervals: Evaluation of principles of melodic implication in a melody completion task. Perception & Psychophysics, 59(7) 1069-1076.

Thompson, W.F. & Parncutt, R. (1997). Perceptual judgments of triads and dyads: Assessment of a psychoacoustic model. Music Perception, 14(3), 263-280.

Thompson, W.F. & Cuddy, L.L. (1997). Music performance and the perception of key. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23(1), 116-135.

Thompson, W.F. (1996). A review and empirical assessment of Eugene Narmour's The Analysis and Cognition of Basic Melodic Structures (1990) and The Analysis and Cognition of Melodic Complexity (1992). Journal of the American Musicological Society, XLIX (1), 127-145.

Thompson, W.F. and Stainton, M. (1995/1996). Using Humdrum to analyze melodic structure: An assessment of Narmour's implication-realization model. Computing in Musicology, 10, 24-33.

Thompson, W.F. (1994). Sensitivity to combinations of musical parameters: pitch & duration, & pitch pattern with durational pattern. Perception & Psychophysics, 56(3), 363-374.

Thompson, W.F., Russo, F.A., & Sinclair, D. (1994). Effects of underscoring on the perception of closure in film excerpts. Psychomusicology, 13, 9-27.

Thompson, W.F. (1993). Modeling perceived relationships between melody, harmony, and key. Perception & Psychophysics, 53, 13-24.

Thompson, W.F. & Sinclair, D. (1993). Pitch pattern, durational pattern, and timbre: A study of the perceptual integration of auditory qualities. Psychomusicology, 12, 29-47.

Cuddy, L.L. & Thompson, W.F. (1992). Asymmetry of perceived key movement in chorale sequences: converging evidence from a probe-tone investigation. Psychological Research, 54, 51-59.

Thompson, W.F. & Cuddy, L.L. (1992). Perceived key movement in four-voice harmony and single voices, Music Perception, 9, 427-438.

Thompson, W.F. & Mor, S. (1992). A perceptual investigation of polytonality. Psychological Research, 54, 60-71.

Thompson, W.F. & Robitaille, B. (1992). Can composers express emotions through music? Empirical Studies of the Arts, 10, 79-89.

Thompson, W.F. (1989). Composer-specific aspects of musical performance: an evaluation of Clynes' theory of "pulse" for performances of Mozart & Beethoven. Music Perception, 7, 15-42.

Thompson, W.F. & Cuddy, L.L. (1989). Sensitivity to key change in chorale sequences: A comparison of single voices and four-voice harmony. Music Perception, 7, 151-168.

Thompson, W.F., Sundberg, J., Fryden, L., & Friberg, A.  (1989). The use of rules for expression in the performance of melodies.  Psychology of Music, 17, 63-82.

Thompson, W.F. & Cuddy, L.L. (1987). Musical judgements of Bach Chorale excerpts. In Sundberg, J. (ed.) Harmony & Tonality, Royal Swedish Academy of Music, Stockholm, 85-95.

Thompson, W.F., Fryberg, A., Fryden, L. & Sundberg, J.  (1986). Testing of rules for the automatic performance of melodies.  Quarterly Progress and Status Report, Volume 2(3), 27-44, Journal published by the Department of Speech Communication and Music Acoustics, KTH, Stockholm.

Thompson, W.F., Cuddy, L.L., & Frost, B.J. (1985). Opponent processes in vowel perception.  Canadian Journal of Psychology, 39, 1-15.




Faculty of Human Sciences Executive Dean's Service Award: Governance Award for service as Head of Department


Elected President: Society for Music Perception and Cognition


President's Prize for Most Promising Scholar: York University


International Congress of Acoustics prize research excellence, Toronto Canada


Longwood Award: Doctoral dissertation award Queen's University, Kingston




Funding Body




2016 -2019ARC Discovery ProjectViolent music: social, psychological, and neurological implicationsThompson, W., Warburton, W., Schubert, E., Gentile, D., Schellenberg, G., & Koelsch, S.$400,000


ARC Centre of Excellence

ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders

Crain, S., Rhodes, G., Hodges, J., Coltheart, M., Castles, A., Barnier, A., Brock, J., Byrne, B., Demuth, K., Green, M., Langdon, R., Johnson, B., McArthur, G., Miller, L., Nickels, L., Piguet, O., Savage, G., Thompson, W., Thornton, R. et al.



ARC CCD Cross Program Support Scheme

Our song: Music evoked collaborative memory in couples with and without acquired brain injury

Baird, A., Thompson, W., Bullot, N., Miller, L., Barnier, A., Sutton, J., & Harris, C



ARC Discovery Project

Music and language: psychological commonalities revealed

Thompson, W. & Schellenberg, E.G.



MU Research Infrastructure Block Grant

A transcranial direct current stimulator (tDCS) for the study of brain function in human cognition disorders

Sowman, P., Thompson, W.F., Johnson, B., McCarthy-Jones, S., Nickels, L., & Tawadros, P



MU Strategic Infrastructure Grant

Driving simulators.

Thompson, W., Irwin, J., Chekaluk, E., Curby, K., Tent, J., Lionel Howitt, R., Dowling, R., Batchelor, J., Warbuton, W., Brooks, K., Dean, C., Jones, M., & Wiggins, M.



ARC CCD Cross Program Support Scheme

Characterising disorders of auditory-based communication skills.

Thompson, W., Johnson, B., McArthur, G., Kinoshita, S., & Sun, Y.



ARC CCD Cross Program Support Scheme

Powering up the right hemisphere when words fail: Augmenting melodic intonation therapy (MIT) with non-invasive brain stimulation to treat impaired left-hemisphere function.

Thompson, W., Sowman, P., Savage, G., Nickels, L., & Hodges, J.



MU Research Development Grant

Skilled decoding of dynamic faces: Interactions between perception, action, and emotion.

Curby, K.M., & Thompson, W



MU Research Infrastructure Block Grant Scheme

A virtual reality setup for studying hand movements.

Williams, M.A., Friedman, J., Finkbeiner, M., Thompson, W., Johnson, B., Brooks, K., Sowman, P.



ARC Discovery Project

Vocal Emotional Communication

Thompson, W. & Palmer, C.



MU Research Infrastructure Block Grant Scheme

Integrating EEG and Motion Capture to better understand movements and their underlying electrophysiology

Finkbeiner, M., Johnson, B., Kinoshita, S., Castles, A., Thompson, W., Crain, S., & Harrison, R.E.



MU Research Infrastructure Block Grant Scheme

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Williams, M.A, Thompson, W., Savage, G., Barnier, A., Johnson, B., & Finkbeiner, M.



MU Strategic Research Infrastructure Fund

Psychology/MACCS Motion Capture Group

Thompson, W., Shores, A., Stevenson, R., Case, T., Williams, M.A., McIlwain, D., Sutton, J., & Palermo, R.



ARC Discovery Project Grant

Music, Arousal, and Mood: The Role of Loudness and Loudness Change in Cross-Cultural Music Perception.

Stevens, C., Thompson, W.F., & Cross, I.


Higher Degree Research completions






Dr Thenille Braun

Rhythmic Movement: the Role of Expectancy and Skill in Event and Emergent Timing

Doctor of Philosophy


Dr Lincoln John Colling

Predicting the action of other agents

Doctor of Philosophy


Dr Lena Rachel Quinto

Contributions of Performance Expression and Compositional Structure to Emotion in Music

Doctor of Philosophy


Dr Paolo Ammirante

Melodic accent as ideomotor action

Doctor of Philosophy